WHAT DOES IT COST? m i * STATISTICAL REPORT, &c, PRESENTED TO THE CONVE-ITION OF THE CANADA TEMPERANCE UNION, HELDIN TORONTO, SEPTEMBER 7th, 8th, and 9th, 186& NAPANEEr PRINTED BY HENRY BROTHERS, 1869. <3£ (Purchased j^A^uPkm Cplledhn, at Quern's lUiwetsihj oKtL TO THE OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE TJUMtfE- RANCE BODIES OF CANADA : The documents published at your request in this form, are designed for general circulation, and it is believed that many persons will think, that something more than mere amazement is required to check this dreadful draft on the public purse, attended, as it is, with consequences more serious than money losses. We beg every reader to ponder well the facts, and then ask, what am I doing to arrest or diminish this public demora- lization? You may be told that there is an offset to the liquor bill, we have brought into the court of public opin- ion. Very good, let it be produced. We are prepared to strike out every bit of it, and to demonstrate that every item of the expenditure is a total loss, and the end thereof national ruin. First restrain, and then abolish this odious traffic, is the platform of our Union. Send out far and vdde these docu- ments for universal information. W. S. WILLIAMS,) . WILLIAM SCOTT, J ^ ecietailcs - Canada Temperance Union, Secretaries' office, Napanee, Sept. 23rd, 1869.. STATISTICAL REPORT. At the meeting of the Executive, held in the month of y last, it was deemed advisable to adopt measures for ol information respecting the quantity of liquor manufactured and used in this country, — the quantity of grain used, or rati i misused, in the manufacture of strong drinks, and other col teral topics. On the recommendation of the "committee appointed to consider this question, I was desired to undertake the preparation of these statistics, and repor'; them to this Convention. Accepting the position, I prepared and sent the following circular : CANADA TEMPERANCE UNION. Secretary's Office, Na.mnee, Ont.'| Department of Statistics. / Correct statistics, in reference to the wrongs and cruelties inflicted on society by the liquor traf&o., are considered of gi value, as of a nature to convince the thoughtful, that the busi- ness ought not to be legalized or tolerated, and that the use of liquor as a beverage should cease forever. Appointed by the Executive to deal with this subject, I am anxious to gather information from all parties, on every topic which may bear on the general enquiry. I will, therefore, be glad to receive authentic facts. 1. On intemperance and disorder in Christian Churches, and the number of communicants engaged in the traffic. 2. On crimes and offences, including all returns of convic tions made by law to Clerks of the Peace. 3. On pauperism and mendicancy, not only in cities, towns and villages, but also among the rural population. 4. On the costs and losses, other than those incurred by the Manufacture and importation of liquor. 4 STATISTICAL REPORT. 5. On diseases, idiocy, suicides, madness, &c, produced by think. G. On the testimony given by clergymen, magistrates, judges, juries, jailors and others against the liquor traffic. 7. On any collateral topics illustrative of the evils of the traffic, and its antagonism to all pursuits that are lawful and beneficent in their nature and design. I have not enumerated all the subjects on which it is my ntention to seek information, but extracts from newspapers,. pamphlets, reports of societies, police statistics, parliamentary papers and revenue returns, will at any time be thankfully received, with a view to classification and publication. William Scott. May 24th, 1869. I regret that so few have responded to the request to furnisb authentic facts respecting the liquor traffic and its effects. Unless the entire time of an agent were devoted to this object^ it is obvious that an enquirer must depend upon correspon- dence for his facts ; making use of public documents, as far as possible, for the compilation of statistics. The time at my dis- posal -for the preparation of a statement of the extent and evils of the traffic in this Dominion, has been but brief. I am persuaded that only very few persons have any correct idea of the all-pervading and ruinous character of this bad business, and fewer still have any just conception of the manifold ways in which the liquor business acts injuriously on every lawful and useful pursuit. There is not a single sound principle of political and social economy that is not contravened and under- mined by the operations of the trade in strong drinks. The investment of large capitals in commercial pursuits, meeting the requirements of the community, confers benefit in various ways, but in the manufacture of alcoholic drinks, the greater the investment the greater the injury — involving less employment of lab or, skilled or unskilled, and diffusing in every direction CANADA TEMPEEANCEJCJNION. 5 not good but evil, with scarcely any redeeming features of pro- fit to mankind. Any other business inflicting only a small part of the injury and misery of this, would be speedily frown- ed down, and the strong arm of the law uplifted, would punish the offenders promptly and properly. It is, then, most neces- sary that the facts should be gathered, classified and publish- ed. But who will undertake the work, and publish throughout the land the fearful details of this murderous business 1 Who but the temperance bodies, and this body in particular, which A seeks to unite all parties, and bring into practical co-operation the energies of all for the public good. If we do not at this time cheerfully combine to arouse the . public mind, whatever may be the amount of cost and labor, we may be assured that the land will continue to groan under the burdens of a most unwise legislation and involuntary taxa- tion. This assertion regarding the duties of temperance bodies may, to some, look like a reflection on the Christian Churches of Canada, and I wish from my heart there were no reasons for considering the reflection just. To each Church, and to each member of any Church, the Saviour says, " Ye are the light of the world," " Let your light so shine." There is no difference in. this, as between Romanist and Protestant, Episcopalian or Presbyterian. The moral power of the nation is in the Church by the design of the divine founder. It is denuded of its moral and spiritual influence by fellowship with sin, and in proportion to the sanction it affords to any great evil. The traffic is an unmitigated evil, but the traffic is in the Church ; drunkenness is a vile sin, but drunkenness is in the Church : moderate drinking is the cause of drunkenneess, but moderate drinking is in the Church. The Church is, therefore, stripped of its power for good ; the influence of the good and true disciples of Christ is diminished ; their voice silenced by the machinery of Bacchus, and the secret practical utterances of those who worship at his shrine, and bow to his authority. O STATISTICAL REPORT. In my circular,! asked for information " on intemperance and disorder in Clry^tiaa Churches, and the number of communi- cants engaged in the traffic." No answer has been given to this enquiry,, but it must not therefore be inferred that the Churches are clear of the traffic. It may be, that many of +hcse who. could answer the question, are ashamed to reveal Vumiliatrug facts. We may not guess — we must not con- j aire. In Ontario and Quebec in 1867, there were 34 distil- leries and 137 breweries. How many of these are worked by Christian hands 1 Quite a number. One half, at least, claim to stand on equal footing with the most pure of communicants, and have caused their praises to be " sounded out " from the Churches that own them, because. of. their wonderful liberality towards religious. or educational interests, carried on by volun- tary effort. Of. the 3,090 4 561 constituting the population 1861, only 35,542 profess no religion or acknowledge no- cseed, Is then the strength of the traffic, and the number of the intemperate to be decided by the number of this irreligious group. % By no means ! but chiefly from the crowd of religious professors having an acknowledged creed, and having some sort of Church fellowship. I am well aware that a large number, of our temperance men and women are chiefly connected with the several churches, but at the same time it must be admitted that their power for good is limited by opposing influences. It must be so Ave say, because the whole power of the united Christian. Churches would be sufficient to root out and utterly ;oy for ever the accursed traffic. Excluding mere nominal-, ists, who give their power to work iniquity, the world, with which they are really united, could not withstand the forces of moral energy put forth by consistent and practical Christianity. In Ontario and Quebec there are, as I gather from authentic sources, 3,374 clergymen of all denominations, 2,318 of these are Protestant. I would, however, in this argument blot out unction, as it ought to be understood that all acknow ■ CANADA TEMPERANCE UNION. 7" judge one moral standard of duty. Estimating the population of Ontario and Quebec in 1869 at 3,316,268; there stands one ambassador for Christ for every 982 persons. Other persons, ten times the number of ministers, hold some sort of official relation to the Churches, and yet notwithstanding all this em- bodied agency, designed to promote good will to men and peace, on earth, there has arisen a terribly gigantic power, overshadowing all our institutions of every kind, whose sole effects are mischief, misery and pollution of every kind and de- gree. It is impossible to suppose that the liquor traffic could have grown to its present mighty proportions if the watchmen of. Zion had been vigilant ; if the Church had been faithful to her. vocation. The legislature would not have dared to legal-. ize the traffic ; it would have been compelled to suppress it if the united strength of embodied Christianity had protested, against it, and demanded its extiuction. There is energy in the gospel to upraise the masses, giving them divine life and power over sin and Satan, but if the human depositories of that power allow and cherish the overgrowths and superincumbencies of an iniquity such as the liquor traffic surely is, then and therefore are the divine purposes thwarted, and wickedness becomes im- pudently triumphant. We hope, for better things, though we. thus speak. The Canada Temperance Union would consolidate and harmonize the action of ail parties in or out of the Churches, and there never was a time when united effort was more imperatively demanded. But I clo not hesitate to impeach the Churches of the past with being instrumental in greatly increasing the intemperance which prevails. Even now com- plicity in the traffic ; subserviency to drinking customs, and obsequious silence when the truth might and should be spoken and acted ; these, and other things following in their train, have brought us to the pass we are in. There arc a great num- ber of ministers and members of Churches who are true and triroty to ace reform ; total abstainers; hardwor^ 8 STATISTICAL REPORT, ing advocates of prohibition ; but tliey have been shocked by the hostility of many, and the indifference of more. They have all along been crippled and embarrassed by the insiduous counter- working of adversaries, and the cruel antipathy of such as should have been friends. The whole community must needs be aroused to the existing danger, and seek by all lawful means to avert the consequences threatened. The science of statistics has been thoroughly studied of late years. Governments and public institutions have employed men of talent, and invested them with authority to obtain in- formation on all subjects bearing on the national and social welfare. They have generally only supplied the -facts and figures, leaving to others the duty of comparison and calcula- tion, with a view to redress wrongs and adjust differences. It would seem reasonable to expect that any government knowing that any one business absorbing a vast amount of capital, and diffusing itself throughout every part of the country, abstract- ing the means of subsistence ; multiplying paupers ; murdering the population ; augmenting crime and misery ; crippling en- terprise, and diminishing the gains of useful trades and benefi- cial cornmsrce, would probably devis8 measures to repress the evil, and guard the many against the cupidity of the few. The fact that a large proportion of the revenue was derived from these sources would not stand in the way of investigation and decision, if it were seen and felt that no amount of reve- nue, however great, could justify moral wrong and social suicide, and that there must be in the very^nature of things, and in accordance with the laws of political and social economy, some other and more equitable method of providing for all the neces- sary expenditures incurred in the conduct of civil government. Only by a terrible, judicial blindness, or by the infatuation of voluntary ignorance, can any people submit to the adoption of fiscal measures for revenue purposes, which in their actual Operations destroy the energies of the people ; nullify every CANADA TEMPERANCE UNION. $ object for which a government is constituted, and render ineffec- tual all efforts of the wise and good to elevate the masses, and promote that righteousness which alone exalteth any nation. The immense drain of the national resources produced by the liquor traffic, is a fair subject for consideration. At the pre- sent time it is the more necessary to pursue the investigation, because it is certain that intemperance and the inevitable fruits of the traffic are increasing rather than diminishing, and further, because there exists an organized body of adversaries who are resolved to remove the few restrictions which operate against the traffic, and the partial disqualifications which bear upon them in municipal relations. So far from wishing these per- sons success, or yielding to the pressure they may make, it is ours to show that the entire business ought to be suppressed, and that the communitv should be protected against the devel- opement of the combined forces of natural evil and personal rapacity, by the most stringent prohibitory enactments, to be enforced with the severest penalties. The official statements of the Minister of Customs for the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1869, have not yet reached me. As far as relates to the importation of strong drink, there is no reason to suppose that there has been any diminution as compared with the returns of 18G8. These are before me, and from this source is gathered information respecting the magni- tude of the traffic in this branch of it. In estimating, however, the expenditure to the country in all kinds of intoxicating liquors, it is obvious that the returns of the government furnish only partial information. The duties are imposed on the quantities and values entered. Take for instance the article of brandy, 224,045 gallons are entered ; value, $ 232,699 ; duty $157,773 ; making of cost, thus far, $390,472. In these figures we have no account of freights ; of adulterations subse- quent to importation ; nor of actual charges in the wholesale and retail markets. That article alone costs the consumers at -10 STATISTICAL REPORT, a very low estimate, $900,000 or $1,000,000. But let us examine the whole, O & PQ O 1 M R A P^ «l H O o r A O CO ft pH [> § a m ft H 8 ! . ! CO O OO O ^ (M O ~H Ci o « W 00 00 O O (M O O O ^H r-H Cl r-H Ci LO O GO CO ; E-< W , g r-HOGOOr-HOOGO I- t H 2 ; 0*3 U> -^ O GO to cm o CI CO) Cl GO CO H W H N C 1 o y$ -. ° i - O ci ci nhM :o t>- iO ia ;- ci -* -* co tH -_d oo ■^ >* iO CO (M O (M CO •--.■> CO OlQHClNTh^- Ci OC5 i— 1 Ci i— 1 t- r-H IO o €u? CO "^i i— I O o^ 1 H €# j O CO O t» CO -^ OS ~H *>- ci n o h io o oo c : 1 — 1 C5 t> H « CO (N CO tH o N CO t- CI CM 00 OOOO CO i ^ -/.- O IO O W CO r-H o £ 1 r— 1 CM r-H L- €©= ' 1 ^ffleoo^oco -^ Cl Ci CD CO CO -f *C CO t*H 1 ri iO ?£> CO LO X N GO ^ o p ■*# Cl CO Ci CO 00 oo H* to r-3 J -HH CO) TH CO CO CO o ■<* #3=01 r-H T|H I f4 >■ ! 1 1 COOONNHOSr [ GO CO CM ^ O O iO o O O 1 UO N O X O C5 CO iO CM t- H O -* r— ! Cl O O r -0 Cl >-H ■E-i CM Cl iO GO <— < -J" 1 CO 1 - fe r— 1 Cl CO r—t *<t CO <J T— T t» : ~ . w 8 co o ^ Pn O a ^d QUALIT d c3 o c <D ■* ^ PH ^3 .^ H 3 ,v> d 1 ^ ;d S d a .a -3 .5 1 5 f£ 6c & ->- ? fl^re, then, is a total estimated cost to the consumers of liquors, of four millions, two hundred and thirty-seven thou- I, three hundred and nine dollars, but the estimates areij CANADA TEMPERANCE UNION. in many cases, far below the realities, we may safely put the amount down at $5,000,000. Looking at the table of imports for Nova Scotia, and taking the same liquors, including ale, beer and porter, we find as follows: — Gallons imported, 561,905; value, $415,911; duties, $352,263 ; total, $768,174. Approximate cost to consumers, $1,500,000. One million five hundred thousand dollars. We turn next to New Brunswick. Gallons imported, 441,- 225; value as entered, $336,456; duties, $251,522 j. total, $587,978. Approximate cost to consumers, $1,160,000. Duties derived from the importation of strong drinks in the Dominion, $1,307,402. All expenses of every kind must be paid by the consumers, and to them the total cost of the imported liquors cannot be less than $8,100,000. The Inland Revenue Returns for IS'68, have not come to hand, or have not been furnished to me, so that I could exam- ine them in detail. Of the total returns relating to the manu- facture of spirits and beer in the provinces, I have obtained some particulars, sufficient to alarm those who have the real welfare of the Dominion at heart. I quote from the returns published for the year ending June 30th, 1868. The distilleries produced 4,080,047 gallons of proof spirit, wine measure,, and the breweries. 7,432,685 gallons of beer, making a total of 11,513,732 gallons of intoxicating drinks. Some portion, a fraction merely, enters into other manufac- tures, but.this is more than made up by illicit processes', additions and adulterations. The more than 4,000,000 gallons of proof spirit is diluted and adulterated, and thereby augmented in bulk by nearly 50 per cent., making over 6,000,000 gallons oi pois- onous liquor to be poured down the throats of civilized human- ity ; which, together with the beer, if undiluted and unadu terated, makes a grand total of 13,433,685 gallons of drink a against which poor human nature has to contend, 12 STATISTICAL REPORT. From these sources of income, the government raises m excise duties the sum of $2,425,089 89. The duty on malt, produces $162,678.99, making $2,588,368.88. Consider, then, what must be the aggregate cost to the con- sumers, of all this beverage. They must pay all — first cost,, duties, ^tavern licences, profits — every cent must be paid by the consumers. T would not exaggerate, for I wish the facts only to be fairly stated. It is difficult to ascertain the cost to con- sumers with perfect accuracy, but I have sufficient data before me to put it down at the enormous sum of $10,000,000 ; add to this the $8,100,000, drawn out of the public purse for im- ported liquors, and then the appalling figures are before us;. Our Dominion liquor bill comes at least to $18,100,000, Eigh- teen millions one hundred thousand Dollars ! more than $5 per head for every man, woman and child in the Dominion. Those who may think this estimate too high, are here re- minded, that under the Internal Revenue Act there is the Brewer's license of $50, and the Distiller's or Rectifier's Li- cense of $250 annually, to be paid. Of distilleries we have 25, } which gives the sum of $6,250 ; of breweries there are 153, and these licenses amount to $7,650, making together $13,900. By- returns, made respecting Tavern Licenses in 1867, for the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec, we find no less than 4,410 in operation. The Inland Revenue compilations have several other items included in the totals from the territorial divisions of that department, making a gross total of several hundred thou- sand dollars ; but the sum of $40/000, for licences to sell, may safely be added to the general expenditures for liquor, to say nothing of rents and taxes, which must at least in part be paid by the consumers cf the produce of the stills and vats of the manufacturers. It is perfectly horrifying that all this treasure should be squandered for mere physical gratification. Consider, too, how large a quantity of precious grain is des- troyed in the process of distillation and brewing. The l&tesk CANADA TEMPERANCE UNION. 13 returns which I have had an opportunity of examining, are those made to the Dominion Parliament for the fiscal year ending 30th of June, 1868. Taking these figures, therefore, we find the quantity of various kinds of grain used by the Brewers of the Dominion in that year, to be 22,685,511 lbs weight, and the Distillers destroyed 67,685,511 lbs, making a total of 90,- 367,360 lbs. The total weight, in lbs, for 1867, was 71,433,- 150; being an increase of 18,934,210 lbs. The increase of intoxicating drinks manufactured in 1868, as compared with 1867, (a fact not before mentioned), was 1,675,918 gallons. Of the kinds of grain included in the above, there is no mention of barley. But there is a separate table of the barley made into malt, and I find of that grain 348,475 bushels, which does not appear to be included in the above totals. Reduce those to bushels, and we have at least 1,700,000, and a total of above 2,000,000 bushels. To these amounts must be added 380,787 lbs of sugar and syrup, taken away from lawful domestic use, and converted into intoxicating drinks. It is not for me in this paper to dwell on the criminality of this waste of the " good creatures of God," or on the dreadful insult offered to God, who has mercifully given a rich variety of good grain for the food of man and beast, but which is shamefully converted into most destructive poisons. The sup- posed cost of these articles has been given, after their transmu- tation, and when they come within the reach of all classes of imbibers of liquor. But it might be well for all persons who are engaged in agricultural pursuits, to enquire how far they are justified in raising grain for the purpose of selling to the Distiller or Brewer. It is a " fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness " which is at variance with the law of right- eousness ; and it is certain that the Agriculturist must come in for his share of the costs, losses, calamities and miseries which are the invariable fruits of the liquor traffic. There are persons who have a special propensity to decry and 14 STATISTICAL REPORT, denounce the Government of the Dominion for its lavish ex_ penditures of public money. They are advocates of rigid econo- my ; they are si locked with what appears to them wasteful outlay of the treasury. There may be good reason for complaint, and it is unquestionably the duty of the government to manage the public business in all its departments, with the utmost economy consistent with efficiency, so that the pecuniary burdens of the people may be as light as possible. But look at this amazing drink taxation, voluntarily endured, without compulsion, and without any physical benefit. The government taking advan- tage of a propensity to use stimulating liquor, which has been mainly created by legalizing the traffic, imposes a heavy tax on these liquors, and for this and other reasons we have the tre- mendous bill to pay of $18,100,000. Your attention is direct- ed to the detailed estimates of the Dominion of Canada for the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1869. It includes first, the interest of the public debt, charges of management, premium on exchange, sinking fund and redemp- tion of public debt, the total of these being $6,533,737 40; only a few thousands more than imported liquors cost the Dominion. Take the next item, " Civil Government," which includes the salary of the Governor General and the salaries of the Lieutenant-Governors of the several Provinces, and yet the total is only, (I write in view of the liquor bill) only $651- 366,66. The estimates for the " Administration of Justice," require $440,150. The whole expenses of " Legislation," including miscellaneous items, amount to the trifling sum of $483,183. Without further details, we give the total, $17," 960,911,84 as the Dominion estimates, $140,099 less than our liquor estimates. Let the people remember that they get some- thing valuable in return for this expenditure. Perhaps a largn amount might be saved ; I will not contend with the economist but I do candidly enquire what are the returns available as the product of the liquor traffic 1 Tho answer may be given at CANADA TEMPERANCE UNION. 15 onoe in. general terms — -nothing! absolutely nothing that can l>e reckoned of value or worth the having ! Alas ! it must be told, although all men know it, we do get something in return for the expenditures of the liquor traffic. There are, as th e fruits of this bad business — loss of health ; loss of life ; loss of time ; loss of property ; loss of friends. We reap as the fruits of the traffic, penury ; misery ; corruption ; death. As Dr. Guthrie has eloquently written : " When men die, corrup- tion eommonly begins after death ; but when nations die, it always begins before it. And as in that man's gangrened extremities and swollen feet, and slow circulation, I see the heralds of death approaching ; in these godless masses, sunk in ignorance, lost to the profession of religion, and even to the decent habits of civiliz ', I see the most alarming signs. of a nation's danger- unlei lies are pi Led — the unmistakable forerunners of a nation's death. Unless, ear- ly, active, adequate measures are employed to arrest the pro- gress of our nation's maladies, there remains for this mighty empire no fate but the grave— that grave which has closed over all that have gone before it. Where are the Assyrian and Egyp- tian monarchies % Where is the M I Where the world-wide power of Rome 1 Egypt lies entombed amid the dust of her catacombs. I beneath the mounds of Nineveh. T. s only in the pages of histo- ry ; survives but in the memory of is, and the ma- jestic ruins of the " Eternal City." our fate resemble theirs? Shall it go to prove that Pro videm same law of mortality to nations that lies on men 1 That they also should struggle throuj agers of a precarious inf grow up into the beauty . with tlia ardour* arrive at the vigor of a pe] >- ing pass through the blindness and decay of old age, until y drop into the tomb?" The corruption and death mentioned as the result of the liquor traffic, may be partially arrested or 16 STATISTICAL REPORT. delayed. The recuperative powers of human nature are amazing — the compensative power of lawful commerce and providential government are beyond all things astonishing; but intempe- rance, fostered by a legalized traffic in strong drink, will inevi- tably issue in national decay and utter ruin. By the combined exertions oftemperar.ee men and women, the evil effects of the traffic may be restrained. We have held back the threatened devastation. The religious influences of Chris- tianity, operating in the nations, have checked and modified the antagonistic forces ot strong drink; but all these have been insufficient to banish the enemy, and in this New Do- minion we are yet face to face with the most formidable foe of humanity, — the direst adversary of God and man. Grinning a ghastly smile, defying moral suasion, entrench- ed behind the ramparts of legislation, the enemy ehallengos us to battle. Arc v? ready ? Yes, we shall fight with both weapons, irasm a?<J law; assisting the weak and helpless drunkard and jnoderate drinker, by argument, and driving the foe from his entrenchments bj T the avenging power of righteous legrrs'at'cu. To the polls, O Israel ! and there you gain a victory t Vi forever retained by moral suasion and Christian power For many years we have been accustomed to the statistics of crime, poverty and death, as the constant fruit of the liquor traffic. It is questionable whether the facts have ever made a sufficient impression on the public mind. If all the information which has been collected and published, should be gathered and presented at one view, it would be appall- ing beyond measure. The records of war, and the cruelties of barbarism, have nothing to show equal in horror to the results of the liquor traffic, — nothing so shockingly repug- nant to humanity and Christianity; all the worse because perpetrated under cover of law, and attended with remorse- less avarice, clothed with the symbols of rectitude and CANADA TEMPERANCE UNION. 17 fraternity. By reason of our present situation of prevailing intemperance, it is necessary to do over again the work of former years, and repeat the story of vexatious wrong doing, m order if possible to reach the core of the evil, and as far as possible remove it. To the facts then. It^js indisputable that the chief business of the police in every city and town in Canada, is to take care of the reprobates of society, who are trained and nurtured to vicious habits by the hundreds of drunkeries opened by authority for a consideration. In one year, out of 3,600 apprehensions by the Police in Mon- treal, 2208 were caused directly by intemperance, The next year the same sad story is told, and the number has increased to 4,217. This was in Montreal. In Toronto, the statistics are not less appalling, and everywhere the evid- ence shows that four fifths of the crime of the country is attributable to the liquor traffic— a writer in the Globe says nine teen-twentieths in Toronto In Ottawa, the Metropoli- tan City, 812 cases came under the notice of the Police Magistrate in 1867, and the respected City Clerk assures me that a very large majority of these eases were for drunkenness. Everywhere the same statement is made. A Canadian Parliamentary Committee reported that "Intemperance leads. to crime, to insanity, to pauperism. Que half of the crime annually committed, two-thirds of the cases of insanity, three fourths of the pauperism are ascribable to intemperance." Within a few years, the daily press of Canada has come into existence, and most of these think it right to send a reporter to the police courts. We have every day a statement of business done before the guardians of law and defenders of right, Every day furnishes its own statistics of crime and madness. These are garnish- ed in some cases with ribaldry and folly, affording merri- ment to those who care not to perceive that the wrecks and waifs of fallen humanity, made amenable to law, have been brought to their low estate by the liquor traffic, and IS STATISTICAL REPORT. arj hastening to death by the demon of drink. Every police report, if viewed aright, would satisfy every candid enquirer that the liquor traffic is an 'intolerable burden, an unmiti- gated curse, the foe of God and all mankind. Within a few years past, we have had to increase our penal institu- tions, at a great cost to the country ; asylums for the insane are in course of erection ; hospital accommodation is demanded ; reformatories for vagrant and erring youth are established; boys' and girl's homes, public and private charitable institutions are in operation; and if enquiry be made in reference to the chief source from whence springs the necessity 'fur all this expenditure, it will be answered that it is the liquor traffic. Nearly a thousand convicts are found in the Kingston Penitentiary at the close of 1867. The Reformatory of Ontario had in it. during 18;%', over 200 youths, and that of* Quebec 120, mostly the victims of the intemperance of parents. The Common Gaols of Ontario received 6777 convicts of all ages, costing $92 464. Those of Quebec received 7228, the expenses being $64,438, mak- ing a total of $156,902. Our expenses i\>r the Administra- tion of Justice in Ontario sbeo amount to $238,501). The Provincial Synod of the Church of England recommends an Inebriate Asylum, because the degrading vice or intem- perance is unhappily too prevalent in Canada. Our Lunatic Asylums in the several Provinces of the Dominion, have under treatment more than 2,000 persons, at an annual cost •of about 250,000 dollars, to say nothing of enormous expen- ditures for public .buildings. Palal accidents and sudden deaths are continually occurring through drink, occasioning great loss of time, and property, and money. This liquor business is the worst possible speculation that ever any country engaged in. I s evils and losses enter into and permeate the whole fabric oi'olrr social economy. The ex- penses are inevitable, and in a thousand ways we are taxed for its support, and in such various ways, that to arrive at a full and correct o.timate is utterly impossible. The United Kingdom Al iance has made a declara ion that the yearly loss to the British nation is not less than £228,886,- 280 sterling—?, c, SI. 144,431,400. The friends of Tempe- rance in the United Slates estimat) their liquor bill alone, without calculating collateral losses, at the mighty sum of 10,000,000. What are the items of expenditure and loss incurred by this Dominion ? It is perfectly dreadful to contemplate; but we "had better look the facts iuirlv ia CANADA TEMPERANCE UNION. 19 face, and ask how long the ravages of this plague shall con- tinue. Let us take the same rule of judgment as that adopted by our friends in the United Kingdom : WASTE OF WEALTH IN THIS DOMINION. J. Money Annually Spent in Intoxicating Drinks — 1. Of liquors imported $8,100,000 2. Of liquors manufactured, . . . 10,000,000 Jl. Loss in the Production and Retail Sale of Strong Drink — 1. Laud now used in the cultivation of hops and various kinds of grain, for the distiller &c., would produce food for man and beast, 2,500,000 2. Loss of capital and labor worth, . . 5,500,000 3. Loss of labor to the Slate, by retailers, &c, and their servants, .... 3,000,000 III. Annual Expenses and Burdens arising from the Liquor Traffic — 1. Loss of labor and time to employers and working men by drinking usages . 5,500,000 2. Destruction of property on Land, on lakes and rivers — loss by theft, bad debts, and various crimes, through drinking, . 3,400,000 3. Charges through pauperism, destitution, kness; insanity and premature death, traceable to the use of strong drink, 3,500 ! •' -i. Cost of police, prosecutions, courts of jus- tice, support of criminals, losses to jurors and witnesses, at least, . . . 2,000,000 (J rand total annual loss to the Dominion, $1-3.500,000 ]ii the name of all that is lovely and of good report — in the name of justice and of mercy — in the name of in nu- de innocent sufferers — in the name of our Common Saviour, who died for the redemption of the race; I do appeal to the conscience of every man, of every creed or of no creed, against the legalized toleration of this "sum of all villainies,'' the liquor traffic. William Scott. Napance, 1st Sept., L P. S. — Later returns more than justify the estimates given in this paper. REPORT ON LEGISLATION. To the " Canada Temperance Union," in Convention Assembled : Your Committee on Legislation, having carefully consid- ered the several papers and documents referred to them, most respectfully report as follows : 1. That, in the opinion of your Committee, it is impolitic and wrong in any community to sanction and legalize a traffic tending to the increase of crime, and the destruction of property, health and life. 2. The traffic in intoxicating liquors as a common beve- rage, being of the above character, no consideration of prU vate gain, cr public revenue, can justify the continuance of a system so manifestly wrong in. principle and disastrous in its results, 3. The history of all past legislation upon this question clearly proves the impossibility of satisfactorily limiting and regu'ating a traffic so decidedly mischievous in its tendencies. -L Your Committee are therefore of the opinion that nothing short of the Legislative prohibition of this entire traffic, except for chemical, medicinal and mechanical pur- poses, should fully satisfy the j^atriotic and temperance sentiment of the country. 5. Your Committee, however, are aware that much diver- sity of opinion exists, even among the good and true friends of prohibition, as to whether further action should be taken immediately in favor of entire prohibition, or whether a de termined and united effort ought not first to be made to rk out practically and enforce thoroughly our present prohibitorj- laws, asking in the mean time for such changes as will make the working machinery more perfect and the laws less objectionable than at present; and after mature deliberation, your Committee have decided to recommend the Convention to p; latter course for the present. G. And as some misunderstanding exists as to the present state of our license laws, and the regulations of the liquor traffic, your Committee would direct attention to the follovv- 1 1 i s : The law entirely prohibits the sale of liquorat, , r within three miles of public works, whether being con- CANADA TEMPERANCE UNION. 21 Btrnctcd by the Government, by incorporated bodies or by individuals. The sale is also prohibited absolutely during election days, at agricultural exhibitions, in prisons, to Indians, and to confirmed drunkards; and to everybody from 7 o'clock p.m., on Saturday, to 6 o'clock, a.m., on Monday. And any Municipality, by vote of the electors, may entirelj" prohibit the sale of liquor at retail (that is, in quan- tities less than five gallons, in the original packages) during the entire year, and from }-car to year. Councils may pass By-laws for limiting the number of tavern and shop licenses; for determining the terms and conditions to be complied with before obtaining a license, and fixing the amount of security to be given by parties ob- taining a license. The penalty for selling without a license is from $20 to $50 fine, and costs — second offence, three months in prison —lifter second offence, six months in prison, prosecution to commence within two months. For not closing licensed houses from 7 o'clock Saturday evenings to six Monday morning, fine $20, and costs, or 15 days in prison, at hard labor — second oifence, $40 — third offence, $100 — fourth offence, three months in prison — must prosecute within twenty days after the commission of tha oifence. The present law also makes a vendor of liquor liable in damages to the amount of $1,000, if the purchaser, while under the influence of the liquor so sold, come to his death by suicide or accident ; action lobe brought within three months. And if any person intoxicated should assault another, the vendor of the liquor is liable for all damages. And the husband, wife, parent, brother, sister, tutor, guar- dian, or employer of any person in the habit of drinking to excess, may give notice in writing to the vendors not to cell or give to such person; and selling afrer such notion renders the seller liable for damages to the amount of $50.0. 7. Your Committee submit that much of the drunkenness in villages, towns and cities is the result of the sales of liquor made at licensed shops, to which places mechanics arid laborers necessarily resort for the purchase of groceries and supplies for their families; and thus the temptation is presented to purchase liquor to drink at home, or to take a dram in the store, presented by a generous dealer to agood customer. Your Committee recommend that the Legisla- ture of Ontario be requested at its next sitting, to repeal the law authorizing shop licenses; and that provisions be 22 REPORT ON LEGISLATION. made throwing the entire retail traffic in intoxicating drinks into the hands of the licensed tavern keepers, makingthem liable at the same time for the mischief resulting from such traffic ; providing also that no sale or delivery of liquor, in any quantity, be made to any minor under the age of sixteen years. 8. Your Committee also submit that, in order to the duo •enforcement of our license laws, and the righteous punish- ment of the violation of the same, a necessity exists that it should be made the official duty of some person or persons to take the lead in bringing such offenders to justice; and that the Inspector of Licenses be charged with this duty. 9. In the opinion of your Committee, much of the loss, sin, poverty and suffering resulting from the liquor traffic is hidden from the public view, and much that is seen, or may be seen, is passed unheeded, because the mind is not specially directed to those points of observation where the traffic tells with unchecked force against the individual and national weal. We therefore submit the desirability of asking the Dominion Government to appoint a Committeof enquiry to investigate the subject in all its bearings, and report upon the same, with suggestions as to what should be done in the future, at as early a day as possible ; and in connection with the work of this Committee, the subject of an Inebriate Asylum can well be considered and reported upon. 10. Your Committee propose to make but one more sug- gestion as to present legislation and Governmental action upon the subject under consideration. Though last to lie noticed in this report, it is regarded by your Committee as first in importance, for upon the action which shall be taken regarding it depend the weal or woe of many thousands of the living and many millions yet unborn. In dealing with the liquor traffic in the four Provinces of the Dominion, w«. encounter, among other things, vested "rights, and a large amount of invested capital, which many improperly hold to be sacred and not to be disturbed by legislation — while in the recent acquisition of the Had 1\\\l>v country we are called upon to legislate for a country fair and fertile and without the supposed vested rights connected with the liquor interest. As yet the ascending smoke from no dis- tillery, nor rising steam from any brewery, pollute the salu- brious breeze that gently waves the tall grasses of the beau- tiful prairies skirting the natural canals of that great coiin- .ry. the Saskatchewan, the Assinaboine, and Keel liivcr. CANADA TEMPERANCE UNION. 23 ;et your prayer to the authorities be, " Let, Of in mercy ! let lis spot, this country, be free, forever free, from the curse of Icohol. Protect and preserve for all coming time the red tan of the forest, and the white man of advancing civiliza- on, from the dread scourge of the present age. Let this ) the one green, bright spot beneath the folds of the dear d flag, where the key-stone of the horrid arch of crime \d sin shall never be fixed." Should we have no other ylum where man can feel himself free from the folds of e dread serpent which coils about him, let the world know at this has been preserved, and that here he is protected, not ' the circumscribed walls of brick or stone ; but by the tensive boundaries of a great, healthful and fertile pro- .ice. All which is respectively submitted. A. Farewell, Chairman. mmittee Boom, Toronto, 8th Sept., 1869. ! Canada Temperance Union. ESTABLISHED FEBRUARY, 1869. OFFICERS ELECTED SEPTEMBER 8th, 1869. President, — Hon. M. Cameron, Ottawa. Yice Presidents, — Rev. Dr. Ormiston, Hamilton ; Rev. Wm. Scott, Napanee ; Rev. Dr. Richardson, Yorkville ; John Dougall, Esq., Montreal; Hon. S. L. Tilley, Ottawa j &c., &c. (See Report.) Secretaries, — W. S. Williams, Esq., and Rev. Wrn. Scott, Napanee. Treasurer,— E. W. Hoi ton, Esq., Belleville. Rev. Wm. Scott, Commissioner of Statistics. £7g The next Convention will be held in the City of Montreal, on Tuesday the 6th day of September, 1870. Special InTotice. — All persons subscribing One Dollar to the funds of the Union, are entitled to receive the Printed Report of the proceedings of the Convention, to which is appended both the foregoing valuable reports. To all con- tributors of $1.00 and upwards, to the general treasury, a printed certificate of membership will be forwarded. A donation of $25.00, or upwards, entitles any person to life membership, with appropriate certificate, As a wide circulation of these documents is desired, and the Prize Essays also, at an early date, all persons who de^ sire the prosperity of the Union, are earnestly solicited to forward substantial help as soon as possible. The Secreta- ries cannot fulfil the duties imposed on them by the Con- vention, unless they receive pecuniary assistance toward the publication of documents and circulars ordered to be printed. As soon as the Journal of the Union is established, all monies will be therein duly acknowledged — meanvvhile all remittances may be forwarded to the Secretaries, Napanee.